Making a LiveUSB using command line is easy and does not even require any extra software. It is the use of DD command which will enable you to make bootable USB to install or try Linux based distros from that very USB device. So, let’s get us started.
Plug in your pen-drive or USB device. Now you have to have the path name of your pen-drive. In this open Terminal, and execute the following command:
From here, you can easily find out your USB device. In my case, it’s sdc1. In your case, it does not necessarily be sdc1. Your device may be in sdb1 or in another path. Whatever it may be, just remember it and execute it, as it is.
Now we got the device path name. Your device is already mounted. Before making bootable USB you have to unmount it.
sudo umount /dev/sdc1
Now, execute the following command to make the Live USB. It’ll take time depending on your ISO image file size.
sudo dd if=/path/to/file.iso of=/dev/sdc bs=4M
This will create the bootable USB. Here /path/to/file.iso is as the name suggests. For the path of the file, press Ctrl+l from keyboard. This will show you the address-bar in GNOME environment. Copy-paste this replacing /path/to/file.iso and rest will be the same.
Steganography is the science of hiding information. Here we will use Steganography to hide different files inside an image file in Ubuntu. This process does work in other Linux-based distros too.
For this purpose we need an image file of JPEG format and your files to hide. In my case, here I’ll use some files to hide and an image file titled image.jpg . I have made a folder in Documents for that purpose. I have named it Test. Now I have one image file named image.jpg and one folder named files_to_hide that contains all the files to hide. Now I have to compress the folder that contains all my files to hide. In that case it’s files_to_hide. I have now files_to_hide.zip.
Now open Terminal and point it to your folder that contains another folder of files to be hide and that very image. In my case I have created the folder Test which contains files_to_hide, it’s zip format files_to_hide.zip and image file image.jpg. Now I execute the command as following:
Now list all your files inside Test folder.
In my case the result looked like this:
files_to_hide files_to_hide.zip image.jpg
Now you have to hide files_to_hide.zip inside image.zip and so do as I do:
cat image.jpg files_to_hide.zip > img.jpg
Here, what I have done is simple. cat indicates the program used for this process of concatenation. the two files one zip and one image file. And at last I have merged them in one file named img.jpg. Here you can use any name you want.
Now you’ll see a file img.jpg has been created inside the fiolder Test. Now delete the rests. Because your image file img.jpg now contains all other files inside it.
This img.jpg file can be viewed as the ordinary image file and no one will suspect it being an extraordinary file. Now you can unzip it whenever you want. Just do the following:
This will extract the files_to_hide folder. Isn’t it amazing?
Inductors could be used, instead of capacitors, in combination with resistors to make low-pass or high-pass filters. But in reality, however, inductors are not used. The reason is that inductors tend to be bulky and they are expensive. They depart from the ideal and eventually perform less well than capacitors. So in that case use a capacitor for high-pass or low-pass filters in combination with resistors.
Fedora is Red Hat sponsored community-developed Linux-based operating system. Fedora is the testing ground for RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Okay, I am making it clear. Red Hat Inc. develops enterprise standard Linux-based operating system known as RHEL, in short. It is one of the most stable operating systems. And before incorporating any software in RHEL, developers at Red Hat have to be sure it is stable. And for that purpose Red Hat started Fedora Project. Fedora Project consists of many projects and one of them is Fedora Core, which is now known as Fedora. Fedora uses all the bleeding edge softwares. Here stability is not the main target. Users can use all the latest and greatest softwares.And it is not that Fedora is unstable. Software, when released, is more or less stable. Developers of a software will not release any unstable version unless there are any urgent necessities.
Fedora is a combination all. It uses RPM package manager. RPM is developed by Red Hat and used in RHEL and Fedora and also in their derivatives.
Fedora is fun. You can have the bleeding edge softwares with stability that will bring you ultimate productivity. Fedora always tries to be the first to bring the latest innovation in Linux world. And if it succeeds, it eventually incorporates the features in RHEL. So if you are a Red Hat fan, or prefer RPM over DEB, then use Fedora. It has got all.
Debian prides itself being the ‘most stable’ operating system. Debian is perfect for any server and for those who want a ‘stable’ operating system and doesn’t care much about the ‘bleeding edge’ software. But it does not mean that Debian should ONLY be used in such case where stability is the preference.
Debian users are more or less expert in Linux. Newbies do not prefer using Debian as it has high learning curve. So users of Debian are aware that Debian has stable, testing and unstable branch. It means Debian covers all types of users. Debian also has repository for non-free and proprietary softwares. It supports most of the architectures. Here, my point is, Debian is a versatile operating system and that is why it is called a universal operating system. So do not even think that Debian is only used for stability. Those of you who wants a stable system, to be precise, the ‘most stable’ system, should use Debian Stable. Now those of you who wants a system which is more or less stable and contains ‘cutting edge’ softwares, should use Debian Testing. And for the user, who wants the bleeding edge softwares and do not give a damn to the stability, should use Debain Unstable. So it is the real scenario. Debian is universal. Use it for your need, whatever it maybe.
When Windows is installed after Ubuntu’s installation, or with the existing installation of Ubuntu, it fails to load either of them. The problem being, Window’s bootloader overtakes GRUB
, the default bootloader for Ubuntu. You can fix this using a little trick.
- First, grab an Ubuntu ISO burned in a CD/DVD or wrote on an USB pen drive. In plain English, take a bootable media containing the same version of Ubuntu that is installed on your system.
- Plug-in the bootable media and boot from it. You’ll be given two options, namely: try Ubuntu or install it. Choose to try Ubuntu.
- After boot into Ubuntu from the live media, open terminal. Execute the following command:
sudo fdisk -l
- You’ll see the partition where Linux (Ubuntu) is installed. An asterisk (*) sign would show you the partition where your system boot in. These two partitions aren’t the same for you. That’s why you cannot boot into your PC. You need to fix this.
- Your troubleshooting begins from here. Open terminal and execute the following command:
sudo mkdir /mnt/bootfix
Here we’ve created a directory named bootfix in /mnt to mount your Ubuntu partition. You can name it anything you like.
sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/bootfix
Supposing your Ubuntu is installed in /dev/sda1 partition. Replace it with the partition name where Ubuntu is installed.
- Execute the following in terminal:
- Reinstall GRUB using the following command:
sudo grub-install –root-directory=/mnt/bootfix /dev/sda
- Now unmount the harddrive with the following command:
sudo umount /mnt/bootfix
Now remove the Ubuntu live media and restart your PC. Everything should be back to normal after a restart. You should be able to boot into your Ubuntu and/or Windows.